A Brief History of Mallorca
(This is a revised version of the history of Mallorca in the appendix to Enjoying Mallorca)
5000 BC – Evidence of man in the Balearics has been discovered near Valldemossa and this may be when the islands were first inhabited
3500 BC – Remains of human settlements dating from around this time have been found in Soller
2000 to 1300 BC – The Inhabitants lived in boat-shaped stone dwellings. They used copper and bronze and there is evidence of water systems. Many examples of Beaker Ware pottery with incised geometrical patterns have been discovered and attributed to this period
1000 BC – The bronze and Iron age. Evidence has been discovered of agriculture and animal husbandry. This was the Talaiot (or Talayot) Period – Derived from the Arab word Talai meaning a sentinel. These were dry stone constructions, cone shaped with circular or eliptical plan or pyramidical with square plan comprising a single chamber with its roof supported by one or two pillars. Their purpose is debated it was probably mainly for dwellings and defence but others were for burials. Examples exist at Capocorb Vell near Lluchmayor, S’Hospitalet near Manacor, & Ses Paises near Arta. They were erected by people from the eastern Mediterranean who survived in the Balearics for about 2000 years. They were famous slingers using slings of three lengths for long, medium and short ranges. They were trained from youth and there is a story that their sons had to shoot their meals down from where they had been placed in a tree before being allowed to eat them.
406 BC – A Cartaginian branch of the Phoenicians conquered the island
654 BC – The Cartiginians made Mallorca one of the principal trading centres of the Mediterranean
205 BC – Local slingers repelled the Carthaginian Admiral Magón
123 BC – Rome conquered Mallorca and Menorca. The population of Mallorca was then approximately 30,000. The Romans called the island Balearis Major after the stone throwers or slingers. Quintus Cecilius Metelus (Quinto Cecilio Metelo) strategist and politician with his ships protected from slingers by hides, defeated the island and put it under Roman authority as part of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior, he was rewarded with the title of Balearico and founded Pollentia (now Alcudia) and Palmaria (Palma)
Existing evidence of the Roman occupation includes the Roman Theatre at Pollentia near Alcudia, and a bridge near Can Picafort. The Romans used Balearic slingers in their army and Hannibal used 5000 of them in his Sicilian campaign, putting them in the forefront of his attacks
465 – Vandal King Genserico conquered the Romans
543 – Apolinario – a Byzantine General, Conquered Mallorca for an oriental empire based on Constantinople
700 – The island was briefly independent
707 – Abdullah, eldest son of Moorish commander Muza raided the island but did not retain it
812 – a French attempt to invade was unsuccessful
848 – The Emir of Córdova, Abderrahman II sent 300 ships to suppress raids against Moorish shipping
902 – El Jaulini (Khaulani?) was forced to shelter from a storm on Mallorca while sailing from Spain to Mecca. He noted the defences and returned in 903 to conquer the island for the Arabs. Mallorca was incorporated into the Caliphate of Córdoba, renamed Medina Mayurca. The Arabs planted pomegranites and palm trees. They understood irrigation and their water wheels drew water from deep down. Citrus fruit was planted
957 – Normans attempted an invasion which was unsuccessful
1014 – The Empire of Cordova disintegrated. The Island became part of one of numerous petty Taifa kingdoms with its capital at Denia in Valencia.
1015.– theTaifa kingdom fell into the hands of Denia until Governor Almortadha declared Mallorca independent – it was later recovered by the Wali of Mortadha who turned it into a centre for piracy. Arab relics include the Arch of Almudaina at Almudaina Palace and possibly the Arab baths, although they may have been constructed by the Jews who had lived in that quarter for five centuries. Other traces are the gardens of Alfabia, place names, surnames and instruments such as the Zambomba drum. Mallorca was ruled by the Mujahid for 30 years. Al-Aghlabin was appointed a governor in 1036 to rule the Balearics. He was succeeded as Governor by Ali ibn Mujahid who was kind to Christians. He was replaced in 1076 by Al-Muqtadir, king of Zaragoza who was later to employ El Cid. There was then a brief period of independence under Al-Mu’tada.
1093 – Mallorca was an unruly outpost of the North African empire of Almoravids – desert nomads
1108 – The Pisans attempted invasion – unsuccessful
1113 – Ramón Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, sent an expedition of Catalans and people from Pisa comprising 500 ships and 70,000 men, He seized the island but withdrew with his booty. Palma was well fortified and the Arabs successfully resisted an attack in March 1115. They were saved by an Almoravid expedition which, however resulted in them gaining power
1115-85 – Mallorca was governed by Ishaq ibn Ganiya who rebuilt the ruins of the invasion and revived prosperity based on trade with Africa
1127 – From the Arabs the island passed to the African Almoravide dynasty who made it an independent sovereignty. Mallorca dominated North Africa for more than 50 years. Arab domination lasted 4 centuries
1202 – Rebellion in Mallorca – possibly by Islamic extremists – halted its development into a Ganiyid empire, a Maghribi army invaded and the last of the Ganiyids was beheaded or deported. The Islands passed to the control of the Almohad dynasty of North Africa
1227 – Relationships between Pisa, Florence and Catalonia were delicate. Catalonia wanted to end Arab power and clear the area of the pirates. Pisa, supported by Count Berenguer IV of Catalonia was opposed to domination of the area from Genova. Rivalry developed between the Wali, supported by Genova, and Jaime I, king of Catalonia (who was then 19 years old) reached its peak in this year
1228 – In November, at Tarragona. Pere Martell, a great seafarer invited the king and his nobles to a rich feast at which he stressed the riches of Mallorca. Eventually this led to an invasion being organised
1229 – In September a large force comprising 16,000 men and over 150 ships sailed for Mallorca. The Wali was waiting for them with an army of 42,000 men. The invaders landed at two points, a small force at San Telmo and the main force at Santa Ponca. After two successful battles, near Santa Ponca, the king had a frugal meal remarking afterwards “Ben hem dinat” we have eaten well. Bendinat is said to be named after this incident. Faced with defections, the Wali withdrew to defend Palma which was attacked by Jaime 1, the wall was breached, and the king entered the city on December 31st. Only the castle of Santueri held out for any time against the invasion.
A Fiesta every year on Dec 31 in Palma commemorates this victory. The royal Pennant is placed in the centre of Plaza Cort, opposite the town hall, before being carried by town councillors in procession to the Cathedral and then back to the town hall. A wreath is laid at the statue of Jaime I in the Plaza España. New Year is celebrated by eating the 12 grapes of luck to the sound of the Town Hall clock striking midnight. The council provides music in the surrounding squares.
The Muslims were persecuted, but less harshly than later in Menorca where they were enslaved or expelled and most of their possessions were shared out amongst the victors. The jews, who had existed peacefully with the populace under Arab rule, were more favourably treated because of their skills in map making, silverware and other crafts and their great commercial ability. In the 14th century they were even granted special privileges and could not be convicted on Christian or Moorish testimony but they were heavily taxed as a community rather than as individuals and became unpopular with the other residents, partly through envy of their affluence. They lived in Ghettos and wore prescribed dress to mark them out. A programme of colonisation was introduced, bringing in many settlers from Catalonia and making the island’s language Catalan
1230.- Jaime I founded the new State of Mallorca in March with a new constitution – the Carta de Poblacio guaranteeing equality, liberty and autonomy. It set out the powers of the Government and encouraged trade and new immigrants. Jamie I is said to have vowed to construct the Cathedral when caught in a storm at sea, promising that if he survived he would raise a great church in Palma
1232 –The last of the Moors on the island surrendered and were treated generously
1233 – Ramón Llull was born in Palma. He led a licentious life, married Blanca Picana and had two children. He changed his life style at the age of 30, retired from the world and devoted himself to penitence and study at Monte de Randa then Miramar College where he founded a college of Eastern languages to instruct those about to undertake missionary work. He wrote books on philosophy and poetry, then went to preach the Christian faith to the Berbers. (In 1314 he was stoned and left dying by a crowd in Bugia. He was brought back to Mallorca by Genoese merchants but died the following year as a result of his wounds). He was Beatified by Pope Luis IX
1276 – Jaime I died and was buried at the Monasterio de Poblet in Terragona. His son Jaime II was responsible for most of the initial construction of Palma cathedral which was to continue for many years before the building was completed. Jaime was powerless to resist Pedro III’s demand for homage or to oppose an invasion
1291 – Jaime II of Aragon returned the Balearics to his uncle, Jaime ll of Mallorca
1285 – Pedro III died and his eldest son Alfonso III became ruler of Mallorca. Some nobles resisted and took refuge at Alaro and other castles. When called on to surrender all did except Alaro where Captains Cabrit and Bassa taunted Alfonso and were roasted alive after their defeat as punishment. The Pope was displeased by this cruelty and Alfonso repented and accepted the Pope’s demand in 1295 that he restore his uncle Jaime II to the Mallorcan throne. Cabrit and Bassa were buried in Palma Cathedral.
Jaime II also constructed the royal Palace of Almadaina on the site of the Wali’s Palace (the Alcazar) and Bellver Castle which was intended both as a fort and a palace. He had another palace at Valldemosa where the monastery is now located. Jaime II was the patron of Raymón Llull. His reign saw the start of the construction of many existing buildings including the parish churches of San Miguel, Santa Eulalia, San Jaime, San Nicolás and Santa Cruz. He also founded the convent of Santa Margita and the monastery of San Francisco.
1311 – Jaime II died at the age of 71 and is buried in Palma Cathedral. His first born son Jaime having retired to a monastery, his second son, Sancho, then ruled and continued his father’s work until his own death, paying homage, however, to the King of Aragon. This was a period of extensive trade and the building of a substantial fleet of ships to control the Barbary pirates. Sancho suffered from asthma and to alleviate it he built the palace at Valldemosa
1324 – Marked the start of a decline in the fortunes of the monarchy and Mallorca itself. Sancho died – he is buried at Perpignan. As he had no direct heir he left the throne to his nephew Jaime III with a regency council. Jaime was not a strong ruler. He is best remembered for the Leyes Palatininas, which record the customs and etiquette of the court at that time. Originally written by the king in Latin, a translation is now in the National Library in Madrid. A dispute developed between Mallorca and Aragon where the king, Pedro IV (known as Pere the Ceremonious) who was the brother-in-law of Jaime III, laid claim to the Island and eventually took possession of it in 1343. Mallorca was incorporated into the kingdom of Aragon. Jaime III died at a battle at Lluchmayor in 1349 in an attempt to regain control. He was buried for a time in Valencia but in 1905 his body was returned to Palma Cathedral.
There followed a depressed period under the rule of Aragon. Plague epidemics in 1348, 1375 and 1384 killed more than 60,000. Many misfortunes were blamed on the Jews. They had become rich and prosperous during the previous period of progress and they were then resented
1391 -. There was a rebellion of peasants led by Anton Gigar against a land tax. They marched against the city and murdered over 300 jews although they were not responsible for the tax
1395 – To escape a terrible epidemic in Valencia and Catalonia, King Juan 1 of Aragon came to the island and stayed at Bellver Castle, straining Palma’s finances even further. He died in 1396 and his brother, Martin 1 became king. Martin I sent Hugo de Anglesola as Viceroy to govern Mallorca. He brought stability by introducing good government and civil rights
1403 – There was a serious flood of the Torrente. 1700 houses were destroyed and 5500 people died.
1413 – Visit by Vincent Ferrer – Later St Vincent – who preached throughout the island. Many relics are preserved such as the pulpits he used in Soller and Santa Eulalia in Palma
1420 – Architect Guillermo Sagrera returned to Mallorca, where he had been born at Felanitx, and was made master mason for work on Palma Cathedral – he also built La Lonja
1450 – Another rebellion commanded by Simó Tort Ballester attacked from Inca and when they reached Palma they were joined by apprentices and craftsmen in the capital. They were eventually defeated and heavily fined, creating debts too high for them to repay
1479 – The kingdom of Spain was formed by a union of Castile and Aragon including Mallorca
1485 – Nicolas Calafat from Valldemosa established the first printing press in Mallorca at Miramar College
1492 – Aragon and Castile united and conquered Granada to form Spain as a nation of which the Baleares formed a part. Columbus discovered America and trade shifted to the new world, Mallorca suffered
1521 – Situation again boiled over with the revolt of the Germanies or brotherhoods under Joan Crespí. He was displaced as leader of the revolt by Joanot Colomb and twelve “brothers” who formed a ruling council and virtually governed the island while what was left of the aristocracy lived behind the fortifications of Alcudia. The Emperor Charles V sent a punitive force to suppress the revolt and the leaders were defeated and beheaded. Their property was confiscated and their children were disqualified from holding public office until the fourth generation.
1533 – Santa Catalina Thomas was born in Valldemosa. Fiestas to celebrate her life are held in Valldemosa on July 28 in Palma (where she died) and Sta Margarita (which chose her as its patron saint) on the first Sunday in September -. the Sta Margarita fiesta has the saint as a child, as do all the others, but also has boys in demon costumes who snatch clay pots from dancing girls – up to 10,000 a year are used – and they smash them at the feet of participants. The pots represent the temptations the saint resisted during her life
1541 – King Carlos I visited Palma in the course of gathering a fleet to attack the pirates who were again troublesome in the Mediterranean but raids by barbary and Turkish pirates continued for many years
1550 – the Moorish pirate Dragut with 1500 men attacked Pollenca. He was defeated by Juan Mas who later became Mayor and the victory is still re-enacted in the town. Other notable raids were on Soller and Alcudia
1561 – There was a raid on May 11 by corsairs on Soller by 22 ships under the command of the pirate Ochali who had sailed from Algiers and put in at Ibiza for water. The Governor of Ibiza warned Mallorca of the danger of an attack on Soller and the garrison there was strengthened. Eventually 1700 Moors attacked. During the fight two sisters, Francissca and Catalina Casanovas killed two pirates with the crossbar of their door when they entered via a window. Now known as Ses Valentes Dones de Ca’n Tamany they are celebrated each year at a fiesta. The Moors split into two groups. One was defeated and chased back to their ships by the defenders, but the other group attacked the town and found it unprotected, taking many women and children as prisoners.
1619 – A feud raged between two families on Mallorca, the Canamuts and Canavalls Many lives were lost in the dispute and the problem continued until 1656 despite a truce in 1632 when both sides promised to keep the peace. Mallorca continued to supply the King of Spain with men and ships for his various campaigns throughout the 1600s
1652 – an outbreak of plague was started from a ship from Spain which arrived at Soller. It spread to Palma and over 15,000 people eventually died.
1680 and 1691 – French ships appeared and threatened the island, but it was not attacked.
1700 – Felipe V, grandson of the king Louis XIV of France ascended the Spanish throne. The supporters of a rival, Carlos III (Archduke Charles of Austria), caused the wars of the succession which were settled in 1713 by the treaty of Utrecht with Felipe V being recognised as legitimate king.
Mallorca was divided between the two claimants. In 1706 an Anglo-Dutch squadron anchored in Palma under Admiral Leake who ordered the surrender of the island in the name of Carlos III. The Viceroy refused but was eventually forced to surrender and supporters of Carlos IlI took control of the island ruthlessly persecuting all supporters of Felipe V who were known as Botiflers. Many were banished and they sailed for Barcelona in a Maltese ship in 1707. They did not return until 1709
1713 – a Bourbon fleet came to Palma to force the island to submit to the rule of Felipe V as had been agreed in the Treaty of Utrecht, the Viceroy refused but in 1715 a large fleet and army returned and attacked, landing at Cala Ferrera near Felanitx and marched on Alcudia. Once Alcudia had been captured Palma agreed to surrender on quite favourable terms
1716 – a royal decree appointed a new Government for the island, Mallorca lost all of its special privileges and local rights and became a province of Spain
1746 – Junípero Serra left for America. He had been born in Petra in 1713 and became a missionary in America. He eventually founded San Fernando, San Diego, San Carlos, San Francisco, San Juan, Santa Clara, San Gabriel and San Luis – he died in 1785
1747 – a very high levy was placed on Mallorca to pay for Spanish wars. Also in 1747 all unmarried men found on the streets were press-ganged into the army. They were kept at Bellver castle before being sent to fight in Naples, many died due to ill treatment and lack of food. This caused great unrest, there was a famine and in 1749 an attack of the plague. There was also another serious flood
1717-1779 – Antonio Barceló, a Mallorcan sailor, fought the barbary pirates who still infested the Mediterranean. He was known as Es Capitá Antoni and became Lieutenant-General of the Spanish Fleet
1784 – Fray Junipero Sera died at the mission of San Carlos in Monterey
1808 – an uprising against Napoleon spread to Mallorca. The people supported Fernando VII. Mallorca was invaded by refugees fleeing from the fighting in Catalonia. After the battle of Bailen where the French were defeated, prisoners were sent to Mallorca which rejected them. Eventually a compromise was reached and they were sent to the island of Cabrera where many died. The end of the War of Independence, with a Spanish victory and the re-enthronement of Fernando VIII, brought some peace but not for long
1812 – Mallorca suffered a severe drought and starvation ensued
1820 – saw a bad attack of plague in Son Servera and Arta. More than half the population died. In 1821 it killed 5000 in Palma. In 1835 there was a small earthquake, the Torrente burst its banks in 1850 and there was another earthquake in 1851 which caused considerable damage
1837 – the first regular steamship service provided a connection to the peninsular
1853 – Don Antonio Maura was born in Palma but moved to Madrid to study law. He rose high in politics and was a respected writer and a great orator. He was several times appointed President of the Council of Ministers, formed a party, and became Prime minister in 1918. In 1854 and 1865 cholera killed 2235 people in Palma alone
1868 – a revolt deposed Isabel II of Spain. After a period of interim government, Spain was declared a Republic in 1873 but the monarchy was restored in 1874 and Alfonso XII came to the throne. He was the son of Isabel II. In 1870 Yellow fever struck
1875 – a Narrow gauge railway (to Inca?) opened
1895 – a serious explosion in a powder magazine killed hundreds working to extract gunpowder from Remington cartridges to fill the more modern Mauser cartridge
1898 – The boy king Alfonso XIII ruled under the regency of his mother
1902 – the old walls of Palma were demolished to popular acclaim but the historic gate of Santa Margarita was also destroyed and this caused outrage. Even the king protested at the destruction of the ancient monument
1903 – The Grand Hotel opened
1908 – Only two hotels were listed in a tourist guide to Mallorca. The Grand and the Victoria. A return trip to Valldemosa from Palma took five hours and cost 18 pts
1923 – King Alfonso accepted General Primo de Rivera as dictator. He fell 6 years later and in 1931, after much unrest, the king went into exile following anti-royalist election results. Disruption continued, the right wing attempting to rule against a background of strikes and civil disobedience
1930 – St Catalina Thomas of Valldemosa was canonised. By then there were six large hotels on the island
1935 – Commercial aviation commenced in Mallorca
1936 – The start of the Spanish Civil War. Mallorca joined the Nationalist side and was Franco’s only base in the Mediterranean. The island suffered attacks by Republican forces. In one month there were 18 bombing raids on Mallorca, causing serious damage and many casualties. Then Nationalist planes were based on Mallorca. Porto Cristo was attacked and occupied by a Republican invasion but it was repelled after 20 days of heavy fighting. There were more bombing attacks and many islanders left to join the Nationalists fighting on the mainland. The war ended in 1939. Over 500,000 were killed. Spain remained neutral in WW2
1963 – British United offered flights from Gatwick for £32 return. Work started on widening the Paseo Maritimo. Robert Graves opened Deya’s combined museum and art gallery. The Hotel Villamil stood isolated on Paguera beach
1964 – The International Bank of Reconstruction funded the highway from the airport to Palma. The Naval base in Palma was closed. The last train to Santanyi ran on March 4 – the 60km line had carried 200,000 passengers in 1963 but was losing money. For the first time all roads had to be signposted and have white centre lines. 70,000 cars were registered in Palma. Son Vida Golf Course opened
1965 – The new Son Pardo race track attracted large crowds. Palma airport handled 2m passengers. A new hotel was opened every two days, one hour and 42 minutes in the Balearics
1966 – Robert Graves was awarded the Premio de los Premios for 1965 in recognition of being the person to have done most for Palma. The new airport road was being built – creating an area that 20 years later would become the Parc de Mar. BEA recorded its one millionth passenger to Palma
1967 – The motorway to the airport opened. Global Tours announced a winter 8-day holiday for £26. This was later blocked by BEA who said price should be £32 – so Global gave vouchers for the difference
1968.- Robert Graves was made an adoptive son of Deia where he had lived for 30 years. Palma airport was the busiest in Spain
1969 – The Ruling Junta designated Juan Carlos as future king. Urbanisation plans for Cala Deia were opposed by Robert Graves. Inaugural concerts were held at the new Auditorium
1970 – The Majorca Daily Bulletin reported that when Robert Graves signed a film contract for I Claudius he stipulated that the film should not be shown in Mallorca so that he could maintain anonymity and live in peace. Apartments in Edificio Trianon at Magalluf cost £4250
1971 – The Congress hall in the Pueblo Espanol was not attracting bookings for conventions with only one reserved for 1971. Work began on the motorway to Palma Nova. The swimming pool at the Hotel Mediterraneo was left isolated in the middle of two lanes of traffic by the widening of the Paseo Maritimo
1972 – The plane trees of the Borne were pruned for the first time in 14 years. New floodlighting was switched on at the Cathedral. Esso UK held a convention for 2,400 delegates and their wives at the Pueblo Espanol
1973 – Marivent Palace was offered to the Princess of Spain
1975 – Franco died on November 20. Juan Carlos was sworn in as King on the following day. The first elections for 41 years took place in 1977. Adolfo Suarez became Prime Minister. Five palaces in Palma and a mansion in Lloseta were offered to the Spanish royal family. 137,139 cars were registered in Palma
1976 -.The first artificial beach on Mallorca was completed at Paguera. Nude bathing – still illegal in Spain, was reported on several beaches. Marivent Palace museum would be reopened when the Royal Family was not in residence
1977 – The Soller train was awarded the Silver Plaque of the order of Merit for Tourism – the original 1912 engine and coaches were still in use. The roof of Palma Cathedral was reported to be in a state of ruin due to damp and pigeons. 17,000 attended a communist party rally in the bullring in May and there was a 25,000 crowd at the bullring in June for a rally of the Socialist Workers Party addressed by Felipe Gonzalez. A topless girl appeared on the news pages of the Majorca Daily Bulletin, photographed at Club Mediterraneo at Porto Petro. The public expressed support for changing street signs to their pre-civil war names but the cost was high, Prince Philipe, son of King Carlos, was made Prince of Asturias
1978 – there was a referendum to approve a new constitution. In Mallorca 89% were in favour. The Mallorcan Windmills Association planned to restore 3000 windmills on the island. Although the Balearics had 20% of all of the almond trees in Spain, they produced only 10% of the national crop. The island’s first casino opened in temporary premises at the Santa Ponsa Golf Hotel. In 10 years the number of kilometres of railway line on Mallorca had halved
1979 – The first general election was held under the new constitution with a similar result. 32% of voters in Mallorca abstained. The UK royal yacht Britannia visited Palma. There was a move to declare Cabrera a natural park – supported by Palma Town Council. The island’s worst forest fires burned for several days at Felanitx. – Canadair fire-fighting plane based in the Balearics answered 90 emergency calls. Palma street names were being changed but some residents were pulling down the new signs and painting back the old names
1980 – Butchers threatened not to sell beef, lamb or pork because of a ruling that meat must be minced in front of the customer. There were still seven million almond trees on the island but 70% were more than 60 years old – hence the poor crop. The Carob population was estimated at 900,000, down 500,000 in 50 years
1981 – Agriculture accounted for only 5-10% of the gross interior product of the Balearics. 1000 people offered themselves as extras for the film of Evil Under the Sun which was to be made on the island but only 50 were required. Of 10 railway lines once operating on the island, only those from Palma to Inca and Soller remained
1982 – In the election there was a landslide victory for the Socialists and Felipe Gonzalez became Prime Minister. Work started on the Parc de la Mar. 798 fishing boats employing 1800 men were still working from 15 ports in the Balearics. A ferry, Ciudad de Sevilla went aground opposite the Marivent Palace
1983 – The first autonomous Balearic government was elected with 54 members, Gabrel Cañellas was invested as First President of the Balearic Autonomous Community. The new Flag of the community has four horizontal red stipes on a yellow background with a purple square containing a castle with five towers. Palma airport was again the busiest in Spain in July with 1,222,493 passengers. Joan Miró died
1984 – Almonds fetched record prices. The National court ruled against the development of Dragonera island. The Balearic Parliament approved the establishment of Es Trenc as an area of special interest. The first official nudist beach opened at Portals Vells. The Parc de la Mar was inaugurated by the king and queen
1985 – Titos closed as a night club. 50,000 were unemployed in the Balearics. The New Titos opened later in the year. Robert Graves died on December 7th, he is buried in the churchyard at Deya.
1986 – IVA (VAT) was introduced. Spain entered the EEC. A court ruled that the contents of Marivent Palace should be returned to their original owners as the palace was no longer being used as a museum open to the public when the Royal Family were not in residence. Puerto Portals, Aquapark and the Parc de la Mar car park were inaugurated. A plaque unveiled by the king in Plaza España had 11 mistakes if it was in Mallorquin and 15 if it was in Catalan. 959 forest fires had burned in the Balearics between 1980 and 1986
1987 – The Bolshoi ballet (without orchestra) visited the Auditorium for four performances. The ORA parking system was introduced
2002 – Spain adopted the euro. The exchange rate was €1 = 166.386 pesetas
2004 – Prince Philipe married a news journalist Letizia Ortiz on May 22nd in Madrid
2014 – Juan Carlos abdicated and his son, Prince Philipe of Asturias, ascended the throne of Spain on June 2nd